Symptoms

Diabetes is mainly manifested by high levels of glucose that stays in the blood instead of being properly utilized by the cells to produce energy. Without the ability to absorb glucose, the cells starve, and the person feels extreme fatigue.

Along with lethargy, the main symptoms of diabetes are summarized by the 4P rule, all caused by high levels of sugar in the blood:

  •        Polyuria - excessive urination
  •        Polydipsia - extreme thirst
  •        Polyphagia - increased food intake
  •        Extreme Weight Loss (Perte de Poids ) in a short period of time

Additional common symptoms include blurred vision, slow healing of wounds, fruity breath due to ketones, and even nausea and vomiting.

All these symptoms affect both types of diabetes with a more pronounced and severe manifestation in Type 1 diabetes.

However, symptoms are not enough todiagnose diabetes. A routine blood test should be performed. The results showcased below are used to screen for diabetes in a patient (Standards of Medical Care 2013):

 

Test

Unit

In Normal Cases

In Pre Diabetes(1)

In Diabetes

Notes

Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG)

mg/dL

>70 - <100

≥100 - ≤125

≥126

No caloric intake for at least 8 hours before the test

mmol/L

>3.9 - <5.6

≥5.6 - ≤6.9

≥7

2h plasma glucose (Postprandial)

mg/dL

<140

≥140 - ≤199

≥200

The test should be performed as described by the WHO, using a glucose load containing the equivalent of 75 g anhydrous glucose dissolved in water

mmol/L

<7.8

≥7.8 - ≤11

≥11.1

A1C

%

<5.7

≥5.7 - ≤6.4

≥6.5

The test should be performed in a laboratory using a method that is NGSP certified and standardized to the DCCT assay (2)

Random Plasma Glucose in a patient with classic symptoms of

hyperglycemia or hyperglycemic crisis

mg/dL

N/A

N/A

≥200

----

mmol/L

N/A

N/A

≥11.1

  1. For all three tests, risk is continuous, extending below the lower limit of the range and becoming disproportionately greater at higher ends of the range.
  2. In the absence of unequivocal hyperglycemia, result should be confirmed by repeat testing.
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